ADVERTISING
 
Monday, November 18   Sign in or Register
 
Evangelical Focus
 

 
ADVERTISING
 
 
FOLLOW US ON
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
  • Google +
  • Instagram
  • Soundcloud
 

Newsletter
Newsletter, sign up to receive all our News by email.
 

POLL
Society
Should Christians join social protests?



SEE MORE POLLS
 

 
TOP 10 MOST VIEWED



Jim Harries
 

The importance of local language in urban ministry

Why European languages are not sufficient in African contexts.

LAUSANNE MOVEMENT 23 APRIL 2019 16:00 h GMT+1

Urban ministry has obvious attractions for today’s missionaries. Large cities have a wide variety of facilities (restaurants, schools for children, supermarkets, and so on).



There are benefits of travel and communication. Even should poor quarters of cities such as slums have terrible conditions, Western missionaries can usually afford to live in more amenable places.



Missiological arguments have also been made in favour of ministry in cities. An increasing proportion of today’s global population, including that of the majority world, lives in relatively accessible urban areas.i



It seems to make sense to reach them where they are gathered. People in urban areas, already dislodged from lifestyles that might have occupied their ancestors for centuries, can be uniquely open to outside interventions and to the gospel.ii



Reaching young people in the urban environment offers promise of building foundations that will last for many years.



I want to make a general critique of the above, asking whether there is yet good reason for going to reach people in their homelands. More to the point, I want in this article to look at choice of language. In short, I want to ask:



- How satisfactory is it for a missionary to reach and engage urban people in regional or international languages?



- How important is it to make ‘costly’ efforts to reach them in their indigenous tongues?



I suggest that there are two major arguments in favour of using globalized European languages in ministry in urban areas:



1. Use of European languages enables a great deal of ministry to happen quickly and easily and with relatively little interference to Western missionaries’ own ways of life. Use of an indigenous language would require much more time, effort, and inconvenience.iii



2. Urban people typically make much more use of European languages than do their rural cousins. This is for various reasons because their own languages are compromised through not being universally known in cities, and because city technology comes from the West.



In a context in which a language like English is already evidently rising in prominence, it makes sense to many that Christian mission should engage using the same language.



 



Problems with European languages



Inter-human proximity itself does not of course produce English: people can live very close together, in urban areas, without any profound, long-term effect on their ongoing knowledge of English or other European languages.



‘Urban’ need not mean ‘Western language’. Yet, Neville Alexander makes it clear that post-independence African countries adopted Western languages for official purposes because, as a result of the global scene combined with their own circumstances economically and politically speaking, they had little choice.iv



 





Linguists tell us of problems caused by the use of European languages for formal purposes in the majority world. The sound of newly introduced ways of life, such as the good news of Jesus, when communicated using non-indigenous languages, will make them appear to be foreign.



The categories presupposed in Western languages are not the familiar categories known by people in the majority world. Presumably as a result, people are more likely to come to Christ for financial or other pragmatic reasons, rather than as a result of being deeply stirred in their hearts.



Once the gospel is accepted, a lack of depth in its communication, resulting from the necessity of use of a foreign code, can perpetuate a pragmatic motivation, such as the ‘prosperity gospel’.v



The foreignness of communication means that gospel teaching can appear to be addressing someone else. Although youth may be attracted to such, the very same youth may be more inclined to abandon it later if what they are taught does not enable them to deal with crises they hit later in life.



 



Indigenous language and contextualization



Learning and then using an indigenous language will demonstrate that a missionary is serious in wanting to relate to nationals. Having ears that enable hearing of debates engaged by locals will enable a missionary to begin to understand the local contexts actually faced by native people, as they themselves understand them.



The gospel is said to be translatable.vi When appropriately translated, the good news of Jesus can speak pertinently into a variety of contexts.



Such a translated gospel may make little sense, or even appear plainly wrong, when heard only in translation back into Western languages. Western languages function using categories that remain unfamiliar to indigenous people.vii



If they do not understand the very words they use, this can make people a victim rather than a master of their own communication.viii



The above are just a few ideas drawn from a vast literature that points to the importance of contextualization in cross-cultural mission, where use of an indigenous tongue both is, and enables, contextualization.



 



Sympathetic magic



Furthermore, apparent similarity to the West found in urban contexts is often deceptive. I want to consider this with respect to sympathetic magic. While this is often considered to be practiced in primitive societies, Paul Rozin and Carol Nemeroff ‘find many examples of … operation [of sympathetic magic] in educated adults in Western developed countries … [they find that] laws [of sympathetic magic] are factors in decision making in US culture.’ix



According to Rozin and Nemeroff, in sympathetic magic ‘things that have once been in contact with each other may influence or change each other for a period that extends well past the termination of contact’, and ‘things that resemble one another share fundamental properties.’x



A few examples from Rozin and Nemeroff illustrate this. They discuss the ‘law of contagion’:xi



- Someone might be inclined to reject a whole bowl of soup when one fly lands in it.



- Mere contact of a cockroach with food can lead people to conclude that it is inedible.



 





Shapes carry qualities, so that a chocolate made in the shape of human faeces can be disgusting.



Sympathetic magic also operates positively: a cup once used by the Queen, a cardigan once worn by a US President, or a football shirt once used by a particular professional footballer, can become highly coveted items, sometimes sold at a high price, as if the essence of the person once associated with the item is carried on or in it.



The above examples illustrate ways in which human living is far from ‘rational’. Humans, including Western people, commonly make implicit associations on the basis of resemblances that, ‘rationally speaking’, do not exist.



An equivalent to the above examples (much commented on in recent years) is that of African tribesmen using mobile phones:



- An image of a herdsman in a wild-appearing African steppe using a smart phone causes some cognitive confusion, as Western people’s perceptions vacillate incongruously between impressions of primitivity and those of modernity.



- Their mind struggles to deal with the contradiction: that a primitive tribesman can at the same time be holding and using a high-tech implement like a contemporary smart phone.



 





Just as the cockroach that has touched some food can appear to contaminate a whole bowlful, so the smartphone implicitly ‘modernizes’ the African tribesman.xii The tendency to make assumptions about African people found in a modern-appearing majority world urban context is similar.



A background of buildings, cars, computers, supermarkets, televisions, and so on will affect Westerners’ perception of the African.xiii The assumptions that Westerners pick up include that those people are no longer ‘traditional’.



This scene deceives the Western observer regarding the mindset of the person concerned. The use of a European language such as English has a similar effect, appearing to transform a foreign person into ‘one of us’, into being ‘sophisticated’ in the way that ‘we are’.



Sympathetic magic is often considered to be confined to primitive people. Rozin and Nemeroff have discovered that ‘modern’ people are subject to the same deceptive ‘magical’ effects.



I conclude that Western people are not well equipped to evaluate rationally Majority World scenes. They are apt erroneously to impute Western qualities to non-Western people: a Western person will likely, in their own head, impute ‘Westernisms’ onto indigenous African people.



 



Implications



Some missiologists make a clear case in favour of urban rather than rural ministry. Westerners ministering in urban contexts in other parts of the world can easily, I suggest, be deceived by the apparent familiarity of settings and languages that they meet.



I have here identified this apparent familiarity as often being based on ‘magic’. Reliance on magic for Christian ministry and development activities is problematic. The importance of accurate contextual understanding is the prime reason given in this article for advocating that it is appropriate to use indigenous languages, even in urban contexts, in the majority world.



So my practical advice is to use local languages and local resources in what you are doing.



This article constitutes a small part of the wider case made by the AVM (Alliance for Vulnerable Mission)xiv in favour of the use of local languages and resources by some missionaries from the West in the majority world.



Such linguistic and resource practice is known as vulnerable mission. It can enable a foreign missionary, by coming alongside people, to empower them.



Jim Harries, PhD, works in both urban and rural contexts in East Africa. He is the chairman of the AVM (Alliance for Vulnerable Mission), which advocates that some Western missionaries use indigenous languages and resources in their ministries in the majority world.



This article originally appeared in the March 2019 issue of the Lausanne Global Analysis and is published here with permission. Learn more about this flagship publication from the Lausanne Movement at www.lausanne.org/lga



 



Endnotes




i See https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS.



ii Editor’s Note: See article by Mac Pier, entitled, ‘Movement Day and Lausanne’, in May 2016 issue of Lausanne Global Analysis https://www.lausanne.org/content/lga/2016-05/movement-day-and-lausanne.





iii Note that what I am advocating for is Western missionaries learning and engaging using non-Western languages, not simply Western missionaries communicating using Western languages to people who are then expected to engage their colleagues using indigenous languages. The latter conceals irreconcilable translation difficulties.





iv Neville Alexander, ‘English Unassailable but Unattainable: the dilemma of language policy in South African Education’, Paper presented at the Biennial Conference of the International Federation for the Teaching of English (University of Warwick, England, UK, July 7-10, 1999), http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED444151 (accessed 28.08.08), 5.





v Editor’s Note: See article by Kwabena Asamoah-Gyadu, entitled, ‘The Prosperity Gospel and Its Challenge to Mission in Our Time’, in July 2014 issue of Lausanne Global Analysis https://www.lausanne.org/content/lga/2014-07/the-prosperity-gospel-and-its-challenge-to-mission-in-our-time.





vi Lamin Sanneh, Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture (New York: Orbis Books, 1989).





vii For example, Western languages tend to presuppose dualisms, such as that between spiritual and material.



viii Fear of saying the wrong thing in the wrong way contributes to education in Africa often being by rote.





ix Paul Rozin and Carol Nemeroff, ‘The Laws of Sympathetic Magic a Psychological Analysis of Similarity and Contagion.’ in: Stigler, J & Herdt, G and Schweder R.A. (eds) Cultural Psychology; Essays on Comparative Human Development (Cambridge University Press, 1990):207, 229.





x Ibid 206





xi Ibid 206. Notions of ‘magical’ contagion preceded and apparently set the foundation for the science of micro-organisms ibid 218.





xii The use of the smart phone by the African tribesman will also contaminate (be a contagion with respect to) the purity of the smartphone as a Western/ modern product. Our main interest here is in the reverse.





xiii Note that in much of Africa, it is outsiders and not indigenous African people who are largely responsible for designing and controlling the operation of ‘modern’ urban environments. Hence, even if in Africa, African people in that sense remain ‘strangers’ to modern contexts within their homelands.





 

 





 
 
YOUR ARE AT: - - - The importance of local language in urban ministry
 
ADVERTISING
 
 
 
AUDIOS Audios
 
Julia Doxat-Purser: 25 years of EEA office in Brussels Julia Doxat-Purser: 25 years of EEA office in Brussels

An interview with the socio-political representative of the European Evangelical Alliance about how evangelical Christians work at the heart of the European Union.

 
Ruth Valerio: A lifestyle that cares about creation Ruth Valerio: A lifestyle that cares about creation

Are Christians called to make a difference in environmental care? What has creation care to do with "loving our neighbours"? An interview with the Global Advocacy and Influencing Director of Tearfund.

 
Lars Dahle: Nominal Christianity, a mission field for the church Lars Dahle: Nominal Christianity, a mission field for the church

An interview with Lars Dahle, of the Steering Committee of the Lausanne Movement Global Consultation on Nominal Christianity held in Rome.

 
Testimony: Wildfires near Athens Testimony: Wildfires near Athens

Nico Spies, a Christian worker in Athens, gives details about the wildfires in Greece.

 
PICTURES Pictures
 
Min19: Childhood, family and the church Min19: Childhood, family and the church

The first evangelical congress on childhood and family was held in Madrid. Pictures of the event, November 1-2.

 
IFES World Assembly: ‘Messengers of Hope’ IFES World Assembly: ‘Messengers of Hope’

Students, graduates and staff of the global evangelical student movement reflected together on how the books of Luke and Acts apply to today's universities.

 
Christians at work - the missing link in fulfilling the Great Commission Christians at work - the missing link in fulfilling the Great Commission

Photos of the Lausanne Movement Global Workplace Forum, celebrated in Manila.

 
European Freedom Network Bridge 2019 conference European Freedom Network Bridge 2019 conference

Images of the fifth EFN gathering. Experts, activists, counsellors and church leaders met in Pescara, Italy.

 
VIDEO Video
 
How can we encourage believers to serve Jesus with us? How can we encourage believers to serve Jesus with us?

“It is not just pastors who do ministry. When the saints are doing the ministry too, the Body of Christ is build up and grows towards maturity in the faith”, says Greg Ogden, Chairman Global Discipleship Initiative.

 
Algerian Christians worship God as police arrives to close church Algerian Christians worship God as police arrives to close church

Video of the moment police officers enter a Protestant evangelical church near Tizi-Ouzou to close it. Church members do not stop singing, and peacefully resist later.

 
Porn exploits victims of human trafficking Porn exploits victims of human trafficking

The European Freedom Network launches a new anti-trafficking campaign: “You have no way of knowing if the porn you are looking at is from someone who chose to be there or not”.

 

 

 
A tent of hope for Venezuelan refugees A tent of hope for Venezuelan refugees

Thousands still cross the border to Colombia every week, and many continue on foot into the interior. Christian young people have set up an aid station along the road.

 
 
Follow us on Soundcloud
Follow us on YouTube
 
 
WE RECOMMEND
 
PARTNERS
 

 
AEE
EVANGELICAL FOCUS belongs to Areópago Protestante, linked to the Spanish Evangelical Alliance (AEE). AEE is member of the European
Evangelical Alliance and World Evangelical Alliance.
 

Opinions expressed are those of their respective contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of Evangelical Focus.