In a context of confusion and flashy journalism, rigour becomes a precious value.
If we would talk as much with Muslims as we do about them, Europe would be a different place.
Fundamentalist Muslims, Reformed Muslims, Converted Muslims, Secular Muslims... There are at least 11 ways this faith is lived out in Europe.
Islam is in Europe to stay, albeit progressively and in different forms. Different versions and traditions of Islam compete with each other. It has become Europe’s second religion after Christianity.
Statistics often do not give any indication of the religious commitment, beliefs and practices of a person. Some believe that only a third of all Muslims in Europe actively practice their Islamic faith.