As theological debates on sexuality and marriage become more and more central, many Christian denominations are being asked to clarify their views.
Fundamentalist Muslims, Reformed Muslims, Converted Muslims, Secular Muslims... There are at least 11 ways this faith is lived out in Europe.
Islam is in Europe to stay, albeit progressively and in different forms. Different versions and traditions of Islam compete with each other. It has become Europe’s second religion after Christianity.
Statistics often do not give any indication of the religious commitment, beliefs and practices of a person. Some believe that only a third of all Muslims in Europe actively practice their Islamic faith.
The disappearance of Cristian values in Europe is seen in the way so many believers respond to the refugees. It seems that some want to defend Christian values with an attitude that goes against such values.
Bert de Ruiter, Consultant Christian Muslim Relations for Operation Mobilisation Netherlands, talks about how to achieve a better understanding between Christians and Muslims.